Research on key technologies of intelligent production line for comprehensive recovery of waste lithium batteries for new energy vehicles-Part 1
In order to protect the environment and resources and promote the development of my country's automobile industry, new energy vehicles have received strong support from the government in recent years. For example, the "Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Development Guide (2015-2020)" issued by the National Development and Reform Commission at the end of 2015 clearly stated that, By 2020, the country will add 12,000 centralized charging stations and 4.8 million distributed charging piles.
Today, my country has become the world's largest market for new energy vehicles, and new energy vehicles have experienced a spurt of development. As early as 2016, the production and sales of new energy vehicles reached 517,000, and sales were 507,000, an increase of 51.7% and 53% respectively over the same period of the previous year. Among them, the production and sales of pure electric vehicles were 417,000 and 409,000 respectively, compared with the previous year. Increased by 63.9% and 65.1% respectively over the same period
The "Energy-saving and New Energy Vehicle Industry Development Plan (2012-2020)" issued by the State Council pointed out that by 2020, the cumulative production and sales of pure electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid vehicles will exceed 5 million. The vigorous development of the new energy automobile industry will drive the demand for power batteries, and lithium batteries have high voltage, high energy density, long charge and discharge life, no memory effect, no pollution, high charging efficiency, low self-discharge rate, and operating temperature range. With significant advantages such as wide and good safety, it is currently accelerating the replacement of lead-acid batteries and nickel-hydrogen batteries as power batteries for new energy vehicles, and has become the main direction of power battery development.
As the output and consumption of lithium batteries increase year by year, the amount of battery scrap is also increasing. Therefore, the comprehensive recovery and disposal of used batteries are urgent. After all, after the power lithium battery is decommissioned, if it is improperly disposed of and discarded at will, it will bring environmental impact and safety hazards to the society on the one hand, and waste of resources on the other hand.
Promoting the recycling of new energy vehicle power lithium batteries is conducive to protecting the environment and social safety, promoting resource recycling, and promoting the healthy and sustainable development of my country's new energy vehicle industry. It is of great significance for accelerating green development, building an ecological civilization and a beautiful China.
According to relevant statistics, after 2018, new energy vehicle power lithium batteries will enter large-scale decommissioning. It is estimated that by 2020, it will accumulate more than 200,000 tons (24.6GWh). If 70% can be used for cascade utilization, about 60,000 tons of batteries will be needed. Scrap processing.
The Party Central Committee and the State Council also attach great importance to the recycling and utilization of lithium batteries for new energy vehicles. The State Council held special meetings to conduct research and deployment. In recent years, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, the Development and Reform Commission, the State Council, the Ministry of Environmental Protection, the Ministry of Commerce, the General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine, and the National Standardization Administration have intensively issued a number of laws, regulations and standards, which have greatly promoted the recycling of power lithium batteries.
2. Development level and market demand of automobile lithium battery recycling technology
At present, there are two recycling modes for batteries: one is cascaded use, and the other is to make lithium battery raw materials after disassembly. In terms of incentive measures, the state will support cascade utilization companies and recycling companies in technology research and development, equipment import, etc. within existing funding channels, and encourage companies to continuously improve their technological level, save resources, and protect the environment.
In terms of technology research and development, the state supports the research and development of related recycling technologies and equipment for power batteries, and encourages waste power battery recycling companies, cascade utilization companies, and recycling companies to continue to develop and promote new technologies. In terms of international cooperation, the state will encourage international exchanges and cooperation in the field of electric vehicle power battery recycling, support the joint formulation and coordination of national standards, and support the development of demonstration projects with international advanced levels.
Now, the recycling technology of used lithium-ion batteries has made a major breakthrough, but the existing technology has high cost, complicated operation, and can cause secondary pollution. The existing recycling technology only focuses on the positive electrode material. For the negative electrode, it is only simple separation and recovery of copper foil. The carbon negative electrode waste is not effectively repaired and reused.
This project adapts to industry development planning and related requirements, and has high feasibility. The completion of the key technology research and development of the intelligent production line for the comprehensive recycling of waste lithium batteries for new energy vehicles will greatly promote the city’s automotive lithium battery recycling technology. With the development and layout of the industrial chain, recycling of used lithium-ion batteries can not only reduce environmental pollution, but also achieve considerable economic benefits.
Waste batteries are highly complex, inconvenient to disassemble, and decommissioned power batteries are highly complex, including the complexity of different types of battery manufacturing and design processes, the form of series and parallel groups, the service and use time, the variety of application models and operating conditions . For example, there are different types of batteries such as square, cylindrical, and soft packs, and their lamination and winding forms are also different. Due to the different integration forms, the battery packs are also different after grouping.
These complications result in extremely inconvenient battery recycling or disassembly. Therefore, in the current situation where the level of automation is not high, most of the processes are completed manually, and the skill level of the workers may affect the yield in the battery recycling process. At the same time, the battery short circuit and leakage may cause a fire during the manual disassembly process. Or an explosion may pose a potential safety hazard to people and property.
Recycled lithium battery packs urgently need the introduction of intelligent production line equipment from storage to scrapping, from storage, disassembly of battery packs, to cascade utilization or recycling, and to carry out traceability management throughout the life cycle.
3. Main technical route
3.2. Key technological innovations
3.3. Technical principles, technical methods, technical routes, etc. to be adopted
1) The battery pack arrives at the factory; 2) Unloaded to the transfer area; 3) Visual inspection; 4) Insulation inspection; 5) Discharge (disassembled by hand after discharging unqualified products in visual inspection); 6) Scan code upload; 7) Import Library.
(2) Intelligent three-dimensional warehouse:
(3) Battery disassembly production line:
(4) Testing equipment:
(5) Echelon utilization assembly line:
(6) Battery MES system:
(7) Recycling production line:
Four, technical indicators
2. Equipment recycling capacity: 0.2~1 ton/hour;
5. Project implementation plan
The pre-processed battery packs are taken into a three-dimensional warehouse by a stacker or directly taken to the battery dismantling production line for disassembly production. The battery packs are first disassembled into battery cell modules for electrical performance testing, and qualified battery cell modules Carry out echelon utilization, unqualified cell modules continue to be disassembled into single cells, continue to conduct electrical performance testing on single cells, qualified single cells are assembled and used in steps, and unqualified discarded cells enter regeneration Use production lines.
The positive electrode material, electrolyte, housing material, diaphragm and negative electrode material in the lithium battery cell are fully recovered through appropriate processes; the entire production process is managed and monitored by the MES system of the integrated lithium battery recycling intelligent production line. The MES The system is specially developed for the recycling process of waste lithium battery packs, realizes the automatic management of product data, and builds a systematic product traceability system and digital information management system.
The organization and production process of the overall technical plan is as follows:
Organizational production flow chart of the technical solution
Before storage, some necessary pre-processing work should be carried out on the battery pack, which mainly includes: after the battery pack arrives at the factory, the appearance inspection and insulation test of the battery pack, and then the discharge and dust removal of the battery pack, if the appearance inspection of the battery pack fails after discharging, manually disassemble it directly, and scan the code of the qualified battery pack (if there is no code, manually paste the code and then scan the code) and upload it to the inventory.
The main production process of pre-warehouse processing is as follows:
Flow chart of production process before storage
The production work of each process before warehousing is mainly completed on the drum assembly line. The overall detailed technical plan is as follows:
Schematic diagram of pre-warehouse processing
(2) After starting the pre-processing of storage, the MES system issues the production information, and the WMS/WCS system controls the three-dimensional warehouse to transport the empty pallets to the battery pack lifting line position, and the material battery pack is hoisted to the pre-stocking processing line by manual operation of the cantilever crane On the pallet of the warehouse, the appearance inspection is performed manually;
(3) After the appearance inspection, it is transported to the subsequent work station through the roller assembly line for insulation inspection and PACK package discharge;
(4) After discharge, the battery packs that fail to pass the visual inspection are directly transported to the manual disassembly line for disassembly. After the code is scanned for the qualified battery packs (if there is no code, manually paste the code and then scan the code), the drum line is transported to the warehouse Pre-processing offline;
(5) Finally, the qualified battery pack with pallet is transported to the entrance of the warehouse by AGV forklift.
The intelligent three-dimensional warehouse is used to centrally store the recycled battery packs. At the same time, it is transferred from the intelligent three-dimensional warehouse to the dismantling production line for disassembly according to production needs. The main equipment in the intelligent three-dimensional warehouse includes: high-rise shelves, stackers, Conveyor, pallet, AGV trolley, sky rail, ground rail, computer hardware, WMS system, WCS system, etc.
The layout of the three-dimensional warehouse:
Three-dimensional warehouse floor plan
(2) The number of cargo compartments in the warehouse is ≧500 cargo compartments;
(3) The number of stackers: 2-3 single-deep stackers, 1 double-deep stacker;
(4) The battery packs that fail to pass the inspection before storage are picked up by the stacker and sent to the right conveyor line. They are directly disassembled in the dismantling area. They are not stored in the storage, and the batteries that pass the inspection are processed before storage. After being picked up by the stacker, the bag enters the three-dimensional warehouse from the entrance of the additional battery pack;
(5) At the same time, the empty pallets required by the pre-processing line are taken from the warehouse by the stacker and sent to the empty pallet exit position;
(6) Use the assembly line to reassemble qualified battery packs into the inventory from the finished product entrance.
>>TO BE CONTINUED...